Lonely Planet “Thank You’s”

For those who enjoy using Lonely Planet travel guides from time to time when traveling internationally, you may enjoy this like I did. When I’m abroad and realize that bus routes, for example, have changed from the last print of the book I always email Lonely Planet the updates. Lonely Planet nicely mentions names of people who help in this fashion in a “Thank you” section at the end of the guidebooks. For fun, I’ve randomly shown off my name to friends while in bookstores a couple of times in the past.

So far my name has been mentioned in the following books:

I guess I’ll say a “Thank you” to Google for letting me know that my name has been mentioned in these publications.

Ordinal numerals in Portuguese and Spanish

When we typically think of numbers and counting, we think in terms of cardinal numerals (one, two, three, etc). Ordinal numerals, however, are numbers used to express a level of degree or quality (first, second third).

After searching the internet for some time time for one good list of ordinal numberals in English, Portuguese and Spanish I came up short. I was able to find numeral lists for each on many websites, but I didn’t come across an all-inclusive list that could be used for quick reference. I’ve compiled them together here for anyone that may find this useful.

English Português Español
1st / first 1º / primeiro, ra 1.º / primero, ra
2nd / second 2º / segundo, da 2.º / segundo, da
3rd / third 3º / terceiro, ra 3.º / tercero, ra
4th / fourth 4º / quarto, ta 4.º / cuarto, ta
5th / fifth 5º / quinto, ta 5.º / quinto, ta
6th / sixth 6º / sexto, ta 6.º / sexto, ta
7th / seventh 7º / sétimo, ma 7.º / séptimo, ma
8th / eighth 8º / oitavo, va 8.º / octavo, va
9th / ninth 9º / nono, na 9.º / noveno, na
10th / tenth 10º / décimo, ma 10.º / décimo, ma
11th / eleventh 11º / undécimo, ma (ou décimo primeiro, ra) 11.º / undécimo, ma (o decimoprimero, ra; onceno, na)
12th / twelth 12º / duodécimo, ma (ou décimo segundo, da) 12º / duodécimo, ma (o decimosegundo, na; doceno, na)
13th / thirteenth 13º / tredécimo, ma (ou décimo terceiro, ra) 13.º / decimotercero, ra; (decimotercio, cia)
14th / fourteenth 14º / décimo quarto, ta 14.º / decimocuarto, ta
15th / fifteenth 15º / décimo quinto, ta 15.º / decimoquinto, ta
16th / sixteenth 16º / décimo sexto, ta 16.º / decimosexto, ta
17th / seventeenth 17º / décimo sétimo, ma 17.º / decimoséptimo, ma
18th / eighteenth 18º / décimo oitavo, va 18.º / decimoctavo, va
19th / nineteenth 19º / décimo nono, na 19.º / decimonoveno, na
20th / twentieth 20º / vigésimo, ma 20.º / vigésimo, ma
21st / twenty-first 21º / vigésimo primeiro, ra 21.º / vigésimo primero, ra
22nd / twenty-second 22º / vigésimo segundo, da 22.º / vigésimo segundo, da
23rd / twenty-third 23º / vigésimo terceiro, ra 23.º / vigésimo tercero, ra
30th / thirtieth 30º / trigésimo, ma 30.º / trigésimo, ma
31st / thirty-first 31º / trigésimo primeiro, ra 31.º / trigésimo primero, ra
32nd / thirty-second 32º / trigésimo segundo, da 32.º / trigésimo segundo, da
33rd / thirty-third 33º / trigésimo terceiro, ra 33.º / trigésimo tercero, ra
40th / fortieth 40º / quadragésimo, ma 40.º / cuadragésimo, ma
41st / forty-first 41º / quadragésimo primeiro, ra 41.º / cuadragésimo primero, ra
42nd / forty-second 42º / quadragésimo segundo, da 42.º / cuadragésimo segundo, da
43rd / forty-third 43º / quadragésimo terceiro, ra 43.º / cuadragésimo tercero, ra
50th / fiftieth 50º / quinquagésimo, ma 50.º / quincuagésimo, ma
51st / fifty-first 51º / quinquagésimo primeiro, ra 51.º / quincuagésimo primero, ra
52nd / fifty-second 52º / quinquagésimo segundo, da 52.º / quincuagésimo segundo, da
53rd / fifty-third 53º / quinquagésimo terceiro, ra 53.º / quincuagésimo tercero, ra
60th / sixtieth 60º / sexagésimo, ma 60.º / sexagésimo, ma
61st / sixty-first 61º / sexagésimo primeiro, ra 61.º / sexagésimo primero, ra
62nd / sixty-second 62º / sexagésimo segundo, da 62.º / sexagésimo segundo, da
63rd / sixty-third 63º / sexagésimo terceiro, ra 63.º / sexagésimo tercero, ra
70th / seventieth 70º / septuagésimo, ma 70.º / septuagésimo, ma
71st / seventy-first 71º / septuagésimo primeiro, ra 71.º / septuagésimo primero, ra
72nd / seventy-second 72º / septuagésimo segundo, da 72.º / septuagésimo segundo, da
73rd / seventy-third 73º / septuagésimo terceiro, ra 73.º / septuagésimo tercero, ra
80th / eightieth 80º / octogésimo, ma 80.º / octogésimo, ma
81st / eighty-first 81º / octogésimo primeiro, ra 81.º / octogésimo primero, ra
82nd / eighty-second 82º / octogésimo segundo, da 82.º / octogésimo segundo, da
83th / eighty-third 83º / octogésimo terceiro, ra 83.º / octogésimo tercero, ra
90th / ninetieth 90º / nonagésimo, ma 90.º / nonagésimo, ma
91st / ninety-first 91º / nonagésimo primeiro, ra 90.º / nonagésimo primero, ra
92nd / ninety-second 92º / nonagésimo segundo, da 90.º / nonagésimo segundo, da
93rd / ninety-third 93º / nonagésimo terceiro, ra 90.º / nonagésimo tercero, ra
100th / one-hundredth 100º / centésimo, ma 100.º / centésimo, ma
200th / two-hundredth 200º / ducentésimo, ma 200.º / ducentésimo, ma
300th / three-hundredth 300º / tricentésimo, ma (ou trecentésimo) 300.º / tricentésimo, ma
400th / four-hundredth 400º / quadringentésimo, ma 400.º / cuadringentésimo, ma
500th / five-hundredth 500º / quingentésimo, ma 500.º / quingentésimo, ma
600th / six-hundredth 600º / sexcentésimo, ma (ou seiscentésimo) 600.º / sexagentésimo, ma
700th / seven-hundredth 700º /  septingentésimo, ma 700.º / septingentésimo, ma
800th / eight-hundredth 800º / octingentésimo, ma 800.º / octingentésimo, ma
900th / nine-hundredth 900º / noningentésimo, ma (ou nongentésimo) 900.º / noningentésimo, ma
1000th / (one) thousandth 1000º / milésimo, ma 1000.º / milésimo, ma
2000th / two-thousandth 2000º / dois milésimo, ma
3000th / three-thousandth 3000º / três milésimo, ma
1,000,000th / millionth 1.000.000º / milionésimo, ma 1.000.000.º / millonésimo, ma
1,000,000,000th / billionth 1.000.000.000º / bilionésimo, ma 1.000.000.000.º / bilionésimo, ma

See also:

Using Wikipedia as a foreign language dictionary for subject-specific vocabulary

When I studied at a Brazilian university in São Paulo back in 2007, I many times found myself having to lookup very subject-specific vocabulary over the Internet. Many times I had an English word that I wanted to express in Portuguese. Other times I learned a new Portuguese word at school that I wanted to translate to English. No matter the situation, I almost always found that Wikipedia could accommodate me better than a general translation dictionary.

Say for example that I would like to translate the term General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade to Portuguese. Without an English-Portuguese dictionary that was made specifically to include a large amount of business, economics, or Political Science terms, more than likely this term would not be included. Luckily, Wikipedia can usually help.

GATT (English Wiki article)

GATT (English Wiki article)

As you see in the above image, you can translate words or terms that have a Wikipedia article designated to them to a variety of languages. If your term has a version of the article in the target language, click the language on the left side of the page. When you arrive at the next page, you will see that the title of that page is the vocabulary word(s) you’re looking for in the target language.

As you see below, we’ve been able to conclude that General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in Portuguese is Acordo Geral de Tarifas e Comércio.

GATT (Portuguese Wiki article)

GATT (Portuguese Wiki article)

Q) Is this a guaranteed technique?
A) No. On very rare occasion you will notice that Wikipedia articles in one language have been linked to a related vocab word in another language that is not the correct translation. This occurs when Wiki users who create the articles sometimes mistakenly link two articles from two different languages together thinking that they are proper translations of each other. If you have some experience in the language, then you should be able to notice when these mistakes occur.

To aid you in your quest for the ideal translation, try using Google Translation Tools. This online tool has developed a lot in recent years and thankfully is not limited to strictly literal translations of words. This is because the tool allows users to suggest better translations. After time this method of integrating the human element is guaranteed to make translations more and more precise. To test a Google translation simply copy and paste your translated text from Google’s translation tool to the Wikipedia page in the proper language (http://pt.wikipedia.org for Portuguese, http://es.wikipedia.org for Spanish, and so on). Next browse a bit in the search results for related or exact text of your search query. If you find articles in your search results are using your translated text in the proper context, it is most likely that your translation is correct.

The main thing I wish to stress is that although Wikipedia can, at times, give you an inaccurate translation of the word or term in question, it is generally much more powerful than a simple foreign language dictionary. The reason is that Wikipedia is built from a global community. Invalid information in an article gets noticed by Wiki readers and is many times replaced with the correct information and usually given a footnote to support claims, etc. Dictionaries rarely give you much context around the word you wish to translate. Wikipedia always gives you context – as long as an article exists for the vocabulary term you wish to translate. If you have a basic understanding of the target language, you should be able to read a few sentences of the definition to find out if your term has been translated correctly.

I hope this technique can be useful to those out there, like me, who have spent a large amount of time looking up very specific vocabulary in foreign languages.